made it very clear that Chiang Kai-shek was fully in control of the Nationalist army, and that any detente would be impossible without Chiang’s cooperation. Further complicating the issue was the fact that Chiang considered the Communists the greater threat to him, as opposed to the Japanese, whom he considered a minor annoyance.
As the year went on, Chiang became frustrated and then suspicious of the Young Marshal’s lack of progress against the Communist forces, so much so that Zhang staged mock battles and engagements with the Communists as a cover. In October of 1936 Chiang Kai-shek announced that he would step up his "suppression campaign" against the Communists. At nearly the same time, the Japanese army invaded and was repulsed in the Suiyuan Campaign, giving many in China the hope that Japan could be successfully resisted.
In December Chiang Kai-shek flew to Xi’an to test the loyalty of the Kuomintang (KMT) forces under Zhang, and to personally lead an attack on nearby Communist forces. Zhang Xueliang and another General, Yang Hucheng, tried desperately to convince Chiang to join forces with the Communist army to resist the Japanese. When they were unable to elicit a compromise, they took matters into their own hands, and on December 12, 1936, Zhang and his forces stormed Chiang’s headquarters and arrested Chiang, triggering the Xi’an Incident.
The Xi’an Incident was reported at the time as a treasonous coup by Zhang, but it is fairer to describe it as a "forced negotiation process." Chiang Kai-shek was kept under house arrest for nearly two weeks, during which time Zhang and Yang asked the Communists to send a delegation to Xi’an to discuss the fate of China. For much of the time Chiang resisted negotiations, until it became clear that his life and freedom depended upon it.
On December 17, the CPC delegation, including Zhou Enlai, arrived, but negotiations with Chiang were not fruitful. On December 22, Madame Chiang Kai-shek and her brother T.V. Soong arrived to continue negotiations, and on December 24, an informa丨 agreement was reached (though Chiang Kai- shek never officially signed any peace documents). Hostilities between the two sides, however, immediately ceased, allowing for a successful resistance to Japan.
After Chiang’s release, Zhang Xueliang was arrested, tried in a military court, and sentenced to 10 years for his part in the incident, though he wound up spending nearly the rest of his life (until 1989) under house arrest. In the immediate aftermath of the Xi’an Incident, Zhang asked Hyland Lyon to act as bodyguard to his wife, Edith Chao, and young son, Bobby. For the next 5 years, while Zhang was in prison in Shanghai, Lyon piloted the family about, took care of many important domestic transactions and accompanied them on their travels. He finally left China in 1941, returning to Los Angeles with 6 steamer trunks full of his personal collection of photography and documents, in addition to a small lockbox of documents.
海岚·里昂(Hyland "Bud" Lyon)的珍藏
海岚•里昂先生曾做过特技演员、赛车选手及修车师。移居中国之前，他曾在洛杉矶近郊的柏班克（Burbank)担任专业飞机维 修师，随后在1934年因追随一名爱慕已久的女艺人搬往中国上海 居住。到了中国之后，里昂先生成为中国航空公司（CNAC)飞机技师，与当时身处中国的一小群美侨与外侨共同建立起中国 的航空事业。来到中国一年之后，就在他正要放弃回国之时，
一九三六年四月，张学良背着蒋介石与周恩来谈判，希望结束 国共敌对状态。张学良当时虽然一直希望凑成国共合作，能够 停止内斗并共同抗日，但却向中国共产党清楚表明国民军应由 蒋介石全权掌控，而任何的停战协议也必须得到蒋介石的同意 才能签署。然而问题在于蒋介石仇共远远大于仇日，认为曰本 事小，共产党才是心腹之患。
几个月下来，张学良在剿匪方面毫无进展，使得蒋介石先是恼 怒，并开始怀疑张学良的忠诚。张学良因而与共军佯装作战，以掩盖谈判实情。一九三六年十月，蒋介石突然亲率部队大力 加强剿共，并且又在绥西战役中大败日军，使得国军抗日士气大振。该年十二月，蒋介石飞抵西安亲自领军剿共，同时也是测试张学良部队的忠诚。蒋抵达西安后，张学良与杨虎城两位将军竭力劝说蒋介石与共产党联手抗日，但蒋介石始终不肯让步。一九三六年十二月十二日，张学良手下冲入蒋介石总部将其逮捕，西安事变由此展开。
三、 各派全权代表商定停战办法，以及抗日的 作战协定——时间地点再商定。
ZHANG XUELIANG. 1901-2001.
Autograph Manuscript Signed in character 5 times, 8 pp, 16mo, n.p., "night January 6, 26th year of the Republic" (i.e. 1937), housed in a small red leatherette journal, very minor wear.
THE YOUNG MARSHALS FAREWELL MESSAGES, WRITTEN ON THE PLANE RIDE BETWEEN XI’AN AND NANJING. After the release of Chiang Kai-shek on December 25, Zhang Xueliang chose to return to the capital with the Generalissimo. Once there, Chiang had Zhang arrested and tried in a military tribunal, where he was convicted and sentenced to ten years (but Wound up spending most of the rest of his life in confinement).
丁his document, a series of messages to the people of China, his family and friends, reveals Zhang’s intention to kill himself rather than be subjected to the unknown humiliation that awaited him.
From the first part, translated: "I sincerely have faith in the salvation of the country; however my conduct has been anti-national. Having vowed to be a faithful and trustworthy man, I never expected to let this happen. The most heartbreaking thing is seeing the Japanese find pleasure in their oppression over the Chinese. Rather than witness the fall of our country,
I will take my own life. Hopefully this will end some problems. I wish the leaders of our country to be morally conscious with an awareness of their actions. I have repeatedly expressed my thoughts to Mr. Chiang who possesses extraordinary intelligence. If Mr. Chiang would reconsider my opinions, I would greatly appreciate it
To his family, Zhang writes: "I your brother (father) was straight forwardly reckless. I worked for the salvation of our country, however had no good solutions. The Northwest incident was never planned. Therefore, I came to the capital alone hoping to end the problems. My intention was to save the country from Japanese imperialism and had never expected to let things turn out like this. I do not want to stay alive dfid let other problems arise because of me. Even though I may not have directly caused their death, I am indirectly responsible. I take total responsibility for all the problems. For our country and our families, all the Zhang descendants will swear to take revenge against Japan and will not forget this in the future." The rest of the document, addressed to T.V. Soong, Jimmy Elder, General Tan Enbo, and two others, gives detailed instructions regarding the dispensation of Zhang’s vast estate.
$40,000 – 60,000 HKD$300,000 – 400,000
张学良（ 1901-2001 )手书
亲笔签名信，共五枚签名，共八页，16mo尺寸，书写地点不详。日期为 中华民国二十六年（一九三七年）一月六日。置于红色小皮套内，磨损 极轻微。“少帅”张学良由西安飞往南京途中所写之告别信。
文件末尾则是向宋子文、詹母士 •奥德(Jimmy Elder)、谭恩波将军及另两人交代张家财产的分配。
LYON, HYLAND "BUD." 1908-1973.
A large collection of photographs, correspondence, and memorabilia, much of it relating to Lyon’s years in China, 1934-1941, but also including early and late material, as follows:
Album of Lyon’s early years, with photographs of him as an infant, child and young man, along with early letters to his grandmother.
Album of Lyon’s Hollywood years, 1925-1934, including film stills and images of him as an auto mechanic, actor, stunt man, and pilot.
LYON’S CORRESPONDENCE FROM CHINA: 89 letters (Autograph Letters Signed and Letters Signed), approximately 250 pp, 4to and 8vo, various places in China and the Pacific, September 14, 1934 to July 21, 1940, on various letterheads including the CNAC, Nan-Hu Airfield, and several ocean liners, most to his grandmother but a few other correspondents, being a dear, detailed first-hand narrative of his years in China in the service of the CNAC, the Young Marshal, and others.
A large collection of documents and photographs relating to CNAC, the aviation ground school at Nan-Hu Airfield, and his work post-Xi’an Incident with the Young Marshal’s family. Includes correspondence and a large series of telegrams sent back and forth between Lyon, Julius Barr, James Elder, and other influential figures.
4 small metal luggage tags stamped "Marshal Chang Hsiao Liang" and individually numbered (26, 129, 172, 300).
11 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed by Edith Chao, to Mr. Lyon, along with several canceled checks also signed by her, and together with a checkbook bearing an inscription identifying it as the Young Marshal’s.
A collection of early photos relating to Lyon’s childhood and film career. Approximately 20 Autograph Letters Signed of Dee St. Claire, the showgirl Lyon followed to China, c.1935; together with a signed photograph of St. Claire.
A small accordion file with printed cards, many annotated, of Lyon’s China contacts.
Typed transcriptions of Lyon’s letters, likely by his grandmother Jane Hunter, housed in blue 3-ring binder.
A collection of Lyon’s auto and pilot’s licenses from China, etc.
A large piece of shrapnel removed from Lyon’s body, 1930s.
A small address book and journal, dated March-July 1937, describing an illness and hospital stay, plus his movements about Hangkow with Elder and Julius Barr.
Original correspondence from Jane C. Hunter, Lyon’s grandmother,
1930s-1950s, covering his years in China. Over 200 letters containing much news of family and life in US, commentary on Bud’s letters home. Trunk 1
21 3-ring binders featuring Lyon’s typed narrative illustrated with photographs and clippings, titled "China in the Raw" and covering the years 1935-1941, quoting heavily from his own writings as well as news sources.
Approximately 4000 frames of 35 mm film negatives housed in 9 red leatherette albums and consecutively numbered: images of Lyon’s years in China.
3 red leatherette albums, oblong 8vo, each with mounted gelatin silver prints of Lyon’s images, various sizes (2×3 inches to 5 x 7 inches), including images of city and country life in China in the 1930s, the various CNAC airplanes Lyon worked on, Chinese in formation, and atrocities committed by Japanese troops, among others.
A large collection (exceeding 2000) of loose silver gelatin prints of Lyon’s photos of China, most 4×5 inches, many with his photographer’s stamp, some identified in pencil. Views of people, places, and events in China, 1935-1941.
Lyon’s personal papers from his later years, including documentation relating to patent efforts and machine shop business, personal correspondence and photographs. Together with a large collection of clippings and newspapers from his years in China.
Other items include: Lyon’s CNAC pilot’s blazer, 3 lithographed CNAC posters from the period, and a set of embroidered CNAC "wings"; a collection of travel labels from passenger liners and hotels throughout the far east; a collection of stamps of the period; a calligraphic wall hanging; and a canister of film featuring an early newsreel biography of the Young Marshal.